- 发布时间：2020-01-07 09:36
- 发布时间：2020-01-07 09:36
Permit me to observe:
The late emperor was taken from us before he could finish his life's work, the restoration of the Han. Today, the empire is still divided in three, and our very survival is threatened. Yet still, the officials at court and the soldiers throughout the realm remain loyal to you, your majesty. Because they remember the late emperor, all of them, and they wish to repay his kindness in service to you. This is the moment to extend your divine influence, to honor the memory of the late Emperor and strengthen the morale of your officers. It is not the time to listen to bad advice or close your ears to the suggestions of loyal men.
The emperors of the Western Han chose their courtiers wisely, and their dynasty flourished. The emperors of the Eastern Han chose poorly, and they doomed the empire to ruin. Whenever the late Emperor discussed this problem with me, he lamented the failings of Emperors Huan and Ling.
I began as a common man, farming in my fields in Nanyang, doing what I could to survive in an age of chaos. I never had any interest in making a name for myself as a noble. The late Emperor was not ashamed to visit my cottage and seek my advice. Grateful for his regard, I responded to his appeal and threw myself into his service. Now twenty-one years have passed.
The late Emperor always appreciated my caution and, in his final days, entrusted me with his cause. Since that moment, I have been tormented day and night by the fear that I might let him down. That is why I crossed the Lu river at the height of summer and entered the wastelands beyond. Now the south has been subdued, and our forces are fully armed. I should lead our soldiers to conquer the northern heartland and attempt to remove the hateful traitors, restore the house of Han, and return it to the former capital. This is the way I mean to honor my debt to the late Emperor and fulfill my duty to you.
My only desire is to be permitted to drive out the traitors and restore the Han. If I let you down, punish my offense and report it to the spirit of the late Emperor. Your Majesty, consider your course of action carefully. Seeking out the good advice, and never forget the last words of the last Emperor. I depart now on a long expedition, and I will be forever grateful if you heed my advice.
Blinded by my own tears, I know not that I write.
The First Memorial To The King Before Setting Off For War
Your humble servant Liang begs to say:
Our late king passed away before the great undertaking founded by him was half accomplicated. Now China is divided into three kingdoms.Yizhou is drained of its manpower and resources. This is a critical moment of life or death for our country. Bearing the late king's special fovor in hearts, the officials at court who guard Your Majesty dare not slacken in their vigilance and the devoted officers and soldiers at the front are fighting bravely disregarding their personal safety. They are now repaying to Your Majesty what they have received from the late king. It is advisable that Your Majesty should listen extensively to the counsels of officials in order to carry on the late king's lofty virtues, and heighten the morale of people with high aspiration. It is injudicious that Your Majesty should unduly humble yourself, and use metaphors with distorted meanings, lest you should block the way of sincere admonition.
The imperial court and the Prime Minister’s Office are an important whole. There should be impartiality in meting out rewards and punishments to officials from either administration. For both those who are treacherous and violate the law and those who are loyal and do some good deed, the same legally appointed officials should pass decision on how to punish or reward. This will make plain the equality and sagaciousness of Your Majesty's rule. There should be neither prejudice nor partiality in Your Majesty's attitude towardes the officials inside and outside the court for fear that different laws be put into practice.
Shizhong Gou Youzhi and Fei Yi as well as Shilang Dong Yun are kind and honest men with a strong sense of loyalty. The late king appointed them of your sake, and I respectfully hold that all political affairs at court, regardless of size, be first subjected to their inquiry before actions are taken. In this way can errors be amended, negligence avoided, and greater results attained.
General Xiang Chong is very experienced in military affairs and is kind and just by nature. After evaluating his performance of a trial basis, the late king praised his talent ability. That is why officials have elected him to be commander-in-chief. I humbly suggest that military concerns,regardless of weight, be first met with his consideration. In this way will there be harmony among the troops, and men both capable and incapable will each find his proper place in the camp.
To be close to the virtuous and able officials and keep away from the evil and mean persons. That was the reason that the Western Han Dynasty was prosperous. To be close to the evil and mean persons and keep away form the virtuous and able officials. That was the reason that the East Han Dynasty was collapsed. When the late king was alive and talked with me about these historical lessons, he used to utter a sigh in edtestation for Emperor Hun and Emeror Ling.
Shizhong, Shilang, Zhangshi and Canjun are faithful, upright, and ready to lay down their lives for honor and loyalty. As your humble servant, I hope that Your Majesty will retain close ties to them and trust them. Then can the prosperity of the Han Dynasty be soon realized.
I was originally a farmer who had to wear clothes made of hemp, and tilled land in Nanyang. I merely managed to survive in times of society instability and had no intention of seeking fame and position from princes. With and utter disregard of my low social status and meager fund of knowlegde, the late king called on me repeatedly to consult me about the current events of the country. I felt so grateful that I promised to serve him. Soon afterwards since I received my assignment at the time of the setback and was dispatched as an envoy at the moment of crisis. The late king knew my prudence, and entrusted me on his death bed with the duty of assisting Your Majesty in governing the country .Since then I have been worrying and sighing night and day lest I should do harm to the late king's illustrious fame if I fail to be effective. I was thus umpelled to lead an army across the Lu River in May and went deep into the barren district. Now the whole south is under our rule and we have plenty of fighters and armaments. It is time to reward our army men and lead them northward to conquer the Central Plains. Although I am inferior in ability like a worn out horse or a blunt knife, I would do my utmost to root out treacherous evildoers, rejuvenate the Han Dynasty, and move the capital back to the old city. I owe this to the late king and wish the demonstrate my loyalty to Your Majesty.
As for government affairs such as the augmentation or repeal of certain measures, or the broadening of the way to receive exhortations, they are the duties of Gou Youzhi, Fei Yi and Dong Yun.
I hope Your Majesty would delegate to me the task of punishing the traitors and rejuvenating the Han Dynasty, If I should fail to achieve this, please punish me as to console the soul of the departed king. If Youzhi, Yi and Yun fail to gather exhortations for the fostering of virtues, they should be held responsible for their negligence. Your Majesty should also make the most of your resources to ask for opinions on governing a country, to judge judiciously and accept good advices, and always bear in mind the imperial edict issued by the late king prior to his death. I this can be achieved, you will have my extreme gratitude.
I will be journeying far, and my eyes are full of tears in writing this memorial upon my departure. I can hardly express what else I should say.
A SELECTION OF CLASSIC CHINESE ESSAYS
translated by Luo Jingguo 罗经国
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS
To Lead out the Army
Your servant Liang advises:
The late Emperor passed away leaving his great enterprise less than half completed. The world is still divided into three, and our base in Shu is beleaguered. At this time our very survival hangs m the balance. Yet the ministers who serve and protect you do not slacken their efforts at court, and loyal and principled officers act selflessly in the field: they will require Your Majesty for the uncommon kindness of the late Emperor. Your Majesty should be truly open minded and attentive if he is to build upon the late Emperor's legacy and put heart into men of honour, he should not demean himself and draw on false analogies in order to put a stop to loyal remonstration.
The palace and the Chief Minister's office are one body: there should be no difference between them over promotions and demotions, favour and disgrace. If there be cases of trickery and misdemeanour on the one hand, and good and loyal service on the other, the matter of punishment and reward should be left to the responsible department of state, in order to demonstrate Your Majesty's fairness and impartiality. No favouritism should be shown, no different rules for the palace and the ministries.
Your Majesty has Guo Youzhi, Fei Yi and Dong Yun to advise him at court. They are all sound men, honest and true in their thoughts and purposes, which is why the late Emperor raised them up to be at your side. In my humble opinion, if they are consulted on all matters at court, great and small, before action is taken, there will be no oversights or shortcomings, and it will be for the greater good.
General Xiang Chong is good m character and just in deed. He has a thorough understanding of military affairs. When he was assigned tasks in the past, the late Emperor commended him as 'capable'. Therefore he was promoted to be commander-in-chief by common accord. In my humble opinion, if he is consulted on all matters concerning the garrison there will be harmony among the ranks, and the able and less able officers will be assigned their proper place.
The Former Han dynasty prospered because wise and moral counsellors were made welcome and mean and petty men kept at a distance. The Latter Han fell because mean and petty men were made welcome and wise and moral counsellors kept at a distance. Whenever the late Emperor discussed this thing with me, he expressed his exasperation and disgust with the last Han emperors, Huan and Ling for that reason. Your present chief civil and military officers GuoYouzhi, Fei Yi, Chen Zhen, Zhang Yi and Jiang Wan, are all men willing to lay down their lives in the line of duty. If, as I could wish, Your Majesty made them welcome and trusted them, then we could count the days to the rise of the house of Han.
I, your servant, was formerly a commoner who tilled his own fields in Nanyang. I sought only to stay alive in troublous times, and had no ambition to make myself known to our dukes and earls. The late Emperor took no account of my lowly station; he condescended to pay three visits to my rustic dwelling to ask my opinion on current affairs. Out of gratitude I promised to serve the late Emperor unflaggingly. Subsequently his fortunes were reversed, and I was given responsibility in the aftermath of defeat, at a time of peril and disarray. There has been my place for twenty-one years.
The late Emperor, aware of my caution and prudence, entrusted me on his deathbed with a heavy burden. After I received my orders, my nights were all sleepless, from worry that I could not fulfil my trust, and fear that I would tarnish the late Emperor's glory. Hence in the fifth month I crossed the Lu River and led an expedition deep into the wilderness. Now the southern tribes are pacified, our weapons and armour are adequate; the time is ripe to lead our armies north to pacify the Central Plains. I will exhaust my poor skill as a soldier to expel their cruel and traitorous overlords, thus to restore the house of Han and reclaim the ancient capital. In this way I shall do my duty to repay the late Emperor and loyally serve Your Majesty. As to the weighing of the wisdom of policies at home and offering honest counsel, that is the task of Youzhi, Yi and Yun.
I request Your Majesty to place the job of suppressing the bandits and restoring the dynasty in my hands; if I fail to, execute my commission, I will suffer due punishment, to be reported to the spirit of the late Emperor. If beneficial counsel not forthcoming, Yunzhi, Yi and Yun should be blamed for being remiss, and their fault proclaimed. Your Majesty for your part should also take thought for the future, enquire into the principles of good statecraft, judiciously admit good advice, and deeply study the late Emperor's last testament. Your servant would then be eternally beholden to you.
I shall soon be gone afar. As I write this report I cannot hold back my tears, and I hardly know what I write. （卜立德译）
Memorial to the Emperor before the Northern Expedition
By Zhuge Liang
I, your humble subject Zhuge Liang, have this to say:
The late Emperor had by far not yet attained his objective of restoring the Han Dynasty before he deceased halfway in his career. Now the country is divided into three camps, and Yizhou has exhausted it resources. It is indeed a critical moment when survival is at stake. However, the royal guards keep vigilant at court while the loyal soldiers with high aim fight selflessly on the battlefield, because they bear in mind the late Emperor’s special grace, wishing to repay it to Your Majesty. It would be most judicious that you give more open-minded hearing to your counselors, so as to aggrandize his legacy of noble virtues and heighten thearmymen’s morale. In the meantime, it would be inadvisable to strain your modesty or make inapt remarks, thus blocking faithful remonstrances.
The court and the chancellery are one entity. No difference should be made between them in respect of promoting and commending the good or punishing and criticizing the evil. Those who are guilty of misconduct or creditable for devotion and noble character should be referred to the authorities to be penalized or awarded on their merits, so as to manifest Your Majesty’s justice and perspicacity. It would be inappropriate to show partiality and make distinction between regulations inside and outside the court.
Ministers such as GuoYouzhi, Fei Yi and Dong Yun, having integrity and probity as well as faith in our cause and purity of mind, were selected by the late Emperor to be used by Your Majesty. I think that they should be consulted on all court affairs, be they great or small, before they are put into execution. This will certainly be conducive to making up for loopholes and defects in our work and to effecting greater successes. General Xiang Chong, a man of good nature, wellversed in tactics, formerly used on probation and considered by the late Emperor as capable, has been recommended by all to be the Military Superintendent. In my humble opinion, he should be consulted on all matters concerning the army, be they great or small. This will surely contribute to the harmony in the army and to putting both the superior and the indifferent people in their proper places.
To be close to virtuous courtiers and alien to knavish ones was what made the Earlier Han Dynasty strong and prosperous, while to be close to knavish courtiers and alien to virtuous ones was what made the Latter Han Dynasty collapse. When the late Emperor was still alive, he did not fail to sign with regret and bear a bitter grudge against Emperors Huan and Ling every time he discussed this history with me. Ministers such as Chen Zhen, Zhang Yi and Jiang Wan are all constant and loyal subjects. It is hoped that Your Majesty will hold them dear and trust them. In that case, the revival of the Han Dynasty can be expected in the nearest future.
I was originally a commoner, tilling my land in Nanyang, trying merely to survive in the troublous times, not seeking to be known to the nobility. The late Emperor,disregarding my humble birth and low position, condescended to pay me three visits in my thatched cottage, consulting me on contemporary issues. I was therefore very grateful to him and promised him my whole-hearted service. Later our army suffered a disastrous defeat, I was appointed as envoy to Wu at the time of the debacle, and was installed in office at a moment of great peril and tribulation. Since then twenty one years have elapsed. Knowing my prudence, the late Emperor entrusted me with that task of great consequence upon his demise. Being thus committed, I have often worried at night, fearing lest I should fail to live up to the trust, reflecting discredit upon His Majesty’s sagacity.Consequently, I led the troops to cross the River Lu in the fifth month,penetrating into the depth of the barren land. Now that the southern territoryis stabilized and armaments are sufficient, it is high time to reward the army, so as to march north and recover the central part of the country. I wish that I might exhaust my mediocre ability in extirpating the treacherous malefactors and restoring the Han Dynasty with a triumphant re-entry into the lost capital. This is what I should do to repay the kindness of the late Emperor and to perform my duty to Your Majesty. As for handling matters with discretion and weighing advantages and disadvantages as well as making faithful remonstrances,they are the concern of Guo, Fei and Dong. I beg Your Majesty to enjoin upon methe success of the expedition and the revival of the Han Dynasty. Should I fail, then call me to task and have me duly punished, so as to solace the soul of the late Emperor. In the absence of outspoken suggestions regarding theadvancement of virtues and morality, Guo, Fei and Dong are to be corrected andto have their fault of remissness made known to everybody.
It would be wisethat Your Majesty also give more consideration to State affairs, soliciting thegood opinions on conducting the government and accepting with discernment otherpeople’s views, so as to realize the late Emperor’s wish as expressed in histestament. I shall be most grateful to you for your kindness. Upon my departureto a remote region, I cannot help shedding tears while writing this memorial,not quite clear myself on what I have herein related.（谢百魁译）